Mesoporous silica-coated silver nanoparticles as ciprofloxacin/siRNA carriers for accelerated contaminated wound therapeutic | Journal of Nanobiotechnology



    Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), absolute ethanol, silver nitrate answer (AgNO3, ≥ 99.0%), formaldehyde (HCHO), branched PEG-g-PEI, ribonuclease A (RNase A), and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) have been bought from Sigma-Aldrich Co., Ltd (St. Louis, MO, USA). Sodium hydroxide answer (NaOH), formaldehyde answer (37%), ethyl acetate (EA), and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) have been obtained from Macklin Co., Ltd (Shanghai, China). Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and CFL have been from Aladdin Reagent Co., Ltd (Shanghai, China). Dulbecco’s modified eagle’s medium (DMEM), luria–bertani (LB) broth, penicillin–streptomycin answer, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), fetal bovine serum (FBS), and lipofectamine™ 3000 (Lipo3000) have been bought from Gibco (Thermo Fisher, USA). Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been from Biosharp Co., Ltd (Beijing, China). siTNF-α, Cy3-siRNA-negative management (Cy3-siNC) was synthesized by Shanghai GenePharma Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China). Trypsinization (0.25%, with out EDTA) was obtained from Solarbio Biotech Co., Ltd (Beijing, China). TRIcom reagent was from TIANMO BIOTECH Co., Ltd (Beijing, China). Evo M-MLV RT package was bought from Correct Biology Co., Ltd (Hunan, China). Stormstar Sybr Inexperienced qPCR Grasp Combine was from DBI Bioscience Co., Ltd (Shanghai, China). Mouse TNF-α ELISA package was bought from Abcam (ab208348, UK). Escherichia coli (E. coli, CMCC44103) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, ATCC6538P) have been obtained from the China Basic Microbiological Tradition Assortment Heart. RAW 264.7 cell was bought from American Kind Tradition Assortment (ATCC, Manassas, USA) and it was an immortalized mouse myoblast cell line and might be activated to provoke M1 polarization, releasing inflammatory components, together with TNF-α [29].

    Preparation of PEG-g-PEI-modified mesoporous silica-coated silver (AMP)

    AM was ready as described Music et al. [30] and Wang et al. [15] with minor modifications. Firstly, 0.3 mL of NaOH aqueous answer (2 M) and 0.1 g of CTAB have been added to 50 mL of deionized water for incubation at 37 °C for 30 min. After which, 0.3 mL of HCHO answer (1 M) and 1 mL of AgNO3 answer (0.1 M) have been added beneath stirring. Subsequently, 0.5 mL of TEOS was dropped into the reactive combination. All of the components have been then repeatedly stirred at 80 °C and refluxed for two h. The resultant precipitate was collected by way of centrifugation at 8000 rpm for 10 min and washed with ethanol for thrice. To be able to take away the surfactant template CTAB, 0.06 g of NH4NO3 was added to the NPs dispersed in 60 mL of ethanol answer beneath a sonic bathtub for two h. After drying for 120 min at 60 °C, the AM was obtained with out the template. After which, 10 mg of AM was dissolved in 10 mL of deionized water, and 0.5 mL of PEG-g-PEI answer (100 mg/mL) was dropped into the answer beneath stirring (300 rpm/min, 25 °C) in a single day. Lastly, AMP (1 mg/mL) was obtained by centrifuging at 12,000 rpm/min for 15 min, discarding the supernatant, and washing the precipitation with deionized water for thrice to take away the surplus PEG-g-PEI. Their morphological properties have been detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, HT7700, Hitach, Ltd).

    Ciprofloxacin loading by AMP (AMPC)

    To be able to load CFL into drug carriers, AMP (5 mg) was combined with CFL aqueous answer (500–4000 μg/mL, 5 mL) beneath stirring at 25 °C. Then, the combination was separated by centrifugation (8000 rpm/min, 5 min) and washed a number of occasions till there was no free CFL within the supernatant. The quantity of free CFL within the supernatant was calculated from a calibration curve primarily based on the absorbance depth at 275 nm by UV–vis (TP-720 spectrometer, Tianjin Tuopu Instrument Co., Ltd). The proportion of CFL loading into AMP was calculated as follows:

    $$textual content{LE }left(%proper)textual content{ } = frac{{textual content{m}}_{textual content{oriCFL }}-{textual content{m}}_{textual content{supCFL}}}{{textual content{m}}_{textual content{AMP}} , + , {textual content{m}}_{textual content{oriCFL}}} , occasions , {100}%$$

    the place the moriCFL, msupCFL, and mAMP symbolize the mass of authentic CFL, CFL within the supernatant, and AMP, respectively. The LE represents the loading effectivity.

    Drug launch from AMPC

    To detect the discharge of CFL from AMPC, the AMPC (2 mg) have been dispersed in PBS (pH 7.4, 2 mL) and transferred right into a dialysis bag with a molecular weight cut-off of 1000 Da and stored in PBS (50 mL) on a shaking desk at 37 °C for 48 h. After 2 mL of the answer was eliminated at totally different time factors, the drug launch effectivity was measured by UV–vis at 275 nm. To be able to preserve the answer quantity fixed, 2 mL of recent PBS wanted to be added after every sampling.

    To check the discharge of Ag from AMPC, the AMPC was suspended in an LB tradition medium. After the combination was incubated at 37 °C, the UV–vis adsorption of the AMPC answer was monitored over a time interval. The quantity of consumed Ag was detected at 417 nm utilizing a microphone reader (Bio-teak, Epoch-2).

    Preparation and characterization of AMP loaded with siRNA (AMP@siRNA)

    First, AMPC was obtained in accordance with the tactic described above after which AMP or AMPC and siNC (sense: 5′-CGAAGUGUGUGUGUGUGGC-3′, antisense: 5′-GCCACACACACACACUUCG-3′) with totally different weight ratios (0:1, 7.5:1, 15:1, 30:1, 60:1, and 120:1) have been combined at 25 °C for 30 min. After which the binding capability was evaluated by the agarose gel electrophoresis (110 V, 8 min), the gel was imaged beneath a UV transillumination (FlourChem E, ProteinSimple, San Jose, CA, USA) and the grey worth was calculated by Picture J (Bethesda, Maryland, USA). The zeta potential and hydrodynamic diameter of AMP@siNC have been then measured by Zetasizer Nano-ZS90 (Malvern Panalytical, Ltd).

    Serum enzymatic safety take a look at

    To find out the flexibility of AMP to guard siRNA from RNase A, the AMP and siNC (weight ratio of 15:1) have been incubated at a 2 μL of RNase A (0.5 μg/mL) for 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 min respectively. Subsequently, the answer was combined with 1% SDS at 4 °C for 3 min. Then the remaining siRNAs have been detected by agarose gel electrophoresis (110 V, 8 min) and quantified primarily based on the fluorescence depth.

    The cytotoxicity and hemolysis assay of AMP

    To judge the cytotoxicity of AMP in vitro, 100 μL of RAW 264.7 cells with a density of 5000 cells/effectively have been seeded into 96-well plates. After culturing for twenty-four h, AMP with totally different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 ppm) have been positioned within the wells and co-cultured for an additional 24 h. Then, the tradition medium was eliminated, and the wells have been washed twice with PBS. For every effectively, 10 μL of CCK-8 answer and 90 μL of tradition medium have been added, and the plate was incubated in an incubator (37 °C, 5% CO2) for 1 h. Subsequently, the cell viability was measured on the absorbance of 450 nm by a microplate reader (Bio-teak, Epoch-2) and calculated in accordance with the next formulation:

    $$textual content{Cell viability }left(%proper)textual content{ = }frac{{textual content{A}}_{textual content{eg}}-{textual content{A}}_{textual content{bg}}}{{textual content{A}}_{textual content{ng}}-{textual content{A}}_{textual content{bg}}} , occasions , {100}%$$

    the place Abg and Ang symbolize the absorbance of cell- and AMP-free medium with CCK-8 answer, respectively. Aeg represents the absorbance of medium with cells, CCK-8, and AMP answer.

    To research the hemolytic results of AMP to pink blood cells (RBCs), 500 μL of blood was diluted tenfold with PBS. The blood was combined gently and centrifuged at 10,000g for five min. The supernatant was discarded, and RBCs have been washed just a few occasions by suspending them in a PBS answer (pH 7.4) till the supernatant was clear. Lastly, RBCs have been resuspended with 10 mL of PBS. To judge the hemolytic results, 200 µL of RBCs have been incubated with 800 µL of H2O (as constructive management), 800 µL of PBS (as detrimental management), and AMP with totally different concentrations for 4 h in a 37 °C incubator. After incubation, the samples have been additional centrifugated at 10,000g for five min, and 100 µL of supernatants have been extracted to quantify hemoglobin by recording the absorbance at 577 nm. The proportion of hemolysis charge was calculated as follows.

    $$textual content{Hemolysis charge }left(%proper)textual content{ = }frac{{textual content{A}}_{textual content{sam}}-{textual content{A}}_{textual content{neg}}}{{textual content{A}}_{textual content{pos}}-{textual content{A}}_{textual content{neg}}} , occasions textual content{ 100}%$$

    the place the Asam, Aneg, and Apos symbolize the absorbance worth of therapy, detrimental and constructive teams, respectively.

    siRNA transfection

    RAW264.7 cells have been cultured in DMEM medium supplemented with 10% FBS, 1% penicillin (100 μg/mL), and streptomycin (100 μg/mL) in an environment with 5% CO2 at 37 °C. Subsequently, RAW264.7 cells have been seeded onto 24-well plates with a density of three × 104 cells/effectively, and cultured for twenty-four h. After which, cells have been activated with 1 μg/mL of LPS. After 4 h, the upkeep medium was changed with serum-free DMEM. In the meantime, the AMP (1 mg/mL) and Cy3-siNC (100 pM) have been combined at a weight ratio of 15:1 and 30:1 at 25 °C for 40 min. Then, the above AMP@siNC have been added to the 24-well plates and incubated for 4 h.

    To look at the uptake effectivity, these cells have been imaged utilizing fluorescent microscopy and assessed by circulation cytometry, respectively. Moreover, to review the gene TNF-α expression, some cells have been cultured for 72 h post-transfection in DMEM medium with 10% FBS after eradicating the previous medium-containing materials. The sense and antisense sequences of siTNF-α have been listed as follows: sense: 5′-GUCUCAGCCUCUUCUCAUUdTdT-3′, antisense: 5′- AAUGAGAAGAGGCUGAGACdTdT-3′.

    Fluorescence imaging and siRNA transfection effectivity

    After being handled with AMP@siNC for 4 h, cells have been washed thrice with PBS (pH 7.4) and stuck with 4% formaldehyde for 15 min. Cells have been then stained with DAPI for 20 min. The filters of the inverted microscope have been set for DAPI (excitation at 405 nm and the emission was collected with a 450/50 nm band cross filter) and Cy3 (excited with 543 nm and emission was collected with a band cross filter 605/50 nm). To quantify cell internalization, the post-transfection cells have been washed thrice with PBS and picked up by trypsinization (0.25%, with out EDTA). Cy3 was used as a fluorescent marker (filter set for ECD was utilized) to quantify the fluorescence depth. The samples have been evaluated by a circulation cytometer (CytoFLEX, Beckman).

    In vitro anti-inflammatory exercise

    To exhibit the anti-inflammatory exercise, LPS-activated macrophages have been used to elicit the discharge of the inflammatory mediator TNF-α [31, 32]. The transcription stage of TNF-α gene was investigated by qRT-PCR in accordance with earlier experiences [33]. Briefly, the full RNA from RAW264.7 cells handled with AMP, AMP/siNC, AMPC, AMP/siTNF-α, and Lipo3000/siTNF-α was extracted utilizing a TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen) and quantified utilizing a micro-spectrophotometer (Epoch2, Biotek Devices). Whole RNA (800 ng) was reverse-transcribed to cDNA utilizing PrimeScriptTM RT reagent Equipment (AG11705, Aikerui Organic Engineering Co., Ltd, Hunan, China). The mRNA stage of TNF-α gene was measured by qRT-PCR utilizing the SYBR inexperienced dye (DBI-Bioscience 2143) in a QuanStudio 1 utilized biosystem. The qRT-PCR was carried out in a 20 µL response quantity containing SYBR Premix Ex Taq II (10 µL), ahead prime (10 µM, 0.8 µL), reverse primer (10 µM, 0.8 µL), cDNA template (5 ng/µL, 2 µL), and ddH2O (6.4 µL). The PCR circumstances have been denaturation at 95 °C for 30 s, adopted by 40 cycles of amplification (95 °C for five s, 60 °C for 30 s). The melting curves have been measured at 95 °C for five s and 60 °C for 1 min. The β-actin gene was used as the interior management reference gene. Lastly, gene expression was calculated utilizing the two−∆∆Ct methodology [34]. The primer sequences have been as follows: β-actin F: 5′-GGTCATCACCATTGGCAATG-3′, R: 5′-TAGTTTCGTGGATGCCACAG-3′; TNF-α F: 5′-GTCTGGGCAGGTCTACTTTGG-3′, 5′-GGTTGAGGGTGTCTGAAGGAG-3′.

    Furtherly, TNF-α content material within the cell-free supernatants was decided utilizing the TNF-α ELISA package in accordance with the producer’s directions. Briefly, 50 μL of the antibody cocktail was added to every effectively with 50 μL of samples, then sealed and incubated for 1 h on a plate shaker (25 °C, 400 rpm/min). Subsequently, every effectively was washed with 350 μL of 1× washing buffer PT for 3 occasions, then added 100 μL of TMB growth answer and incubated for 10 min on a plate shaker (400 rpm/min) within the darkness. Lastly, 100 μL of cease answer every effectively was added and shaked for 1 min. And the OD worth was measured by UV–vis at 450 nm.

    In vitro antibacterial exercise

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the totally different NPs for E. coli and S. aureus have been decided by a micro broth dilution methodology. The strains have been cultured in LB medium at 37 °C to the logarithmic section. After which, the bacterial fluid was diluted to a focus of 5 × 105 colony-forming items per mL (CFU/mL). Subsequently, AM, AMP, AMPC, and AMPC/siTNF-α have been individually added into tubes with 4 mL of bacterial cultures and shaken for twenty-four h at 37 °C. After bare eye remark, the bottom focus of the NP within the tube with out micro organism development was decided as MIC.

    To additional consider the antibacterial exercise of those NPs, E. coli and S. aureus within the exponential section have been serially diluted with LB medium to a focus of 5 × 105 CFU/mL. Then, the bacterial suspension was added to 96-well plates and handled with AM, AMP, AMPC, and AMPC/siTNF-α (50 μg/mL). At totally different time intervals, the OD600 of bacterial suspensions was decided utilizing a microphone reader (Bio-teak, Epoch-2) to acquire killing curves. Moreover, after incubation at 37 °C for 12 h, 10 µL of the diluted bacterial answer was unfold on LB agar plates. After incubation at 37 °C for an additional 12 h, digital photographs of every plate have been captured, and the CFU/mL and antibacterial ratio have been obtained. CFU/mL was calculated in accordance with the next equation:

    $$textual content{CFU/mL = }frac{textual content{colony quantity }occasions textual content{ dilution ratio}}{textual content{plated quantity}}$$

    As well as, the mixture impact of CFL and Ag was evaluated by mixture index (CI) evaluation in accordance with the next equation [15]:

    $$ {textual content{CI }} = , {{{textual content{D}}_{{1}} } mathord{left/ {vphantom {{{textual content{D}}_{{1}} } {{textual content{D}}_{{{textual content{CFL}}}} }}} proper. kern-nulldelimiterspace} {{textual content{D}}_{{{textual content{CFL}}}} }} + {{{textual content{D}}_{{2}} } mathord{left/ {vphantom {{{textual content{D}}_{{2}} } {{textual content{D}}_{{{textual content{Ag}}}} }}} proper. kern-nulldelimiterspace} {{textual content{D}}_{{{textual content{Ag}}}} }} + {{{textual content{D}}_{{1}} {textual content{D}}_{{2}} } mathord{left/ {vphantom {{{textual content{D}}_{{1}} {textual content{D}}_{{2}} } {{textual content{D}}_{{{textual content{CFL}}}} {textual content{D}}_{{{textual content{Ag}}}} }}} proper. kern-nulldelimiterspace} {{textual content{D}}_{{{textual content{CFL}}}} {textual content{D}}_{{{textual content{Ag}}}} }} $$

    the place DCFL represents the dose at which CFL produces MIC impact alone and D1 is the dose of CFL required to provide the identical MIC impact together with Ag; equally, DAg is the dose of Ag required to provide MIC impact alone and D2 is the dose of Ag required to provide the identical MIC impact together with CFL. It’s thought of as synergism (CI < 1), antagonism (CI > 1), and additive results (CI = 1).

    In vivo wound therapeutic and security analysis

    The in vivo antibacterial efficacy of AMPC@siTNF-α was examined on the E. coli an infection mannequin when it comes to wound restoration and histological evaluation. All experiments involving animals have been authorized by the Institutional Animal Moral Committee on the Laboratory Animal Analysis Heart at Shenzhen College (Shenzhen, China, approval quantity: AEWC-202200012). Briefly, 6–8-week-old BALB/c mice (18–22 g) have been obtained from Guangdong Medical Laboratory Animal Heart (Guangdong, China). Mice have been anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of 4% pentobarbital sodium (1.0 mL/kg). Spherical pores and skin wounds have been created on the again with a biopsy puncture of 8 mm diameter, after which 10 μL of E. coli suspension (107 CFU/mL) was added to the wound floor. Sooner or later later, the mice have been randomly divided into 8 teams (n = 4), 200 μL of AM, AMP, AMPC, AMP@siTNF-α, and AMPC@siTNF-α suspensions (50 μg/mL) and CFL answer (35 μg/mL) in PBS have been positioned on the injuries. The injuries have been handled with 200 μL of PBS and levofloxacin (LEVO, 60 μg/mL) because the detrimental and constructive controls, respectively. The world and pictures of the wound have been recorded from 0 to 12 days. After 12 days of therapy, wound tissues have been collected and dipped in fixative (4% paraformaldehyde). Wound tissues have been sectioned and stained at Wuhan Service Biotechnology Co., Ltd., and the pictures have been then recorded and analyzed utilizing a Pathology Sectioning Scanner (LEICA-Aperio, carbon disulfide).

    Statistical evaluation

    All experiments have been carried out at the least thrice, and the information have been proven as imply ± customary deviation (SD). T-test have been used to judge the importance of various information. It was thought of as statistically important when p < 0.05 (*), p < 0.01 (**), and p < 0.001 (***).


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